What is wildlife and range management? What are the types and objectives of wildlife management?
Wildlife management is the process of keeping wild species at desirable levels as determined by wildlife managers. It is a process of determining interactions among and between wildlife, its habitats and people to achieve predefined impacts.The elements of wildlife management are – knowledge and understanding of wildlife population trends, factors that influence wildlife population, the interaction of wildlife species, the impacts of humans and how the surrounding landscape affects the wildlife. Wildlife conservation aims to stop the loss of species. One goal of wildlife management is to keep the population low enough through hunting so the crash level is not reached. Reducing the impact of this boom and bust cycle prevents death and suffering of the species involved, while also preventing habitat degradation and waste of the wildlife resource. The aim of range management is to protect, conserve, improve and continue welfare of resources of land, water, plants, and animals and increase the well being of the rangeland people and society as a whole. Range management has four main principles, they are:
→ Correct kind of animals
→ The correct number of animals
→ Correct season of range use or grazing
→ Proper distribution of livestock on range areas
Wildlife management are further classified into two: Manipulative management and Custodial management. Manipulative management acts on a population which either changes its numbers by direct means or by indirect means such as changing food supply, habitat, density of predators, or prevalence of diseases whereas Custodial management is preventive or protective and minimizes external influences on the population and its habitat. It is carried on by setting up national parks where ecological conditions are protected and endangered species are conserved by law.The objective of wildlife management is to end the loss in the Earth’s biodiversity, by taking into consideration the ecological principles such as carrying capacity, disturbance and succession, and environmental conditions such as physical geography, pedology and hydrology.