EIA is a methodology to systematically identify, predict ,evaluate and mitigate the potential impacts on physical-chemical, biological, cultural, and socio-economic constituents of our environment due to developmental projects including proposed projects, plans, programs, or legislative actions effecting adversely to the environment. It is one of the assessment tools which provide essential data and information regarding sustainable economic development to the decision making bodies , the concerned public and other user base for environmental analysis.
It works as both a planning tool as well as a decision making tool. It aids in providing techniques to promote policy making and actions that safeguards sustainability in the implemented projects. It’s benefits can be observed during all the stages of a development project , starting from exploration to disbandment. Nowadays, it is coming out as a curriculum of standard prefeasibility engineering and economic studies, running more parallel to these segments.
Need for EIA
It has been assigned to protect the environment by guiding the local project governing bodies through a detailed evaluation strategy of those projects that are likely to impact adversely on the environment , thereby threatening the sustainability. This clarifies the planning authorities to get a broader view of the entire project plan and it’s consequences on the environment, thereby enabling the decision makers to be more practical and careful.
Objectives of EIA
• It ensures that proper research has been done taking into consideration ,with all the components of the environment.
• It ensures that all the environmental concerns are taken care of during the decision making process of implementing any project idea.
• To preserve the productivity of natural ecosystem and maintain the ecological balance,Thereby restoring the sustainability.
• To ensure optimum utilisation of resources.
Characteristics of EIA
1)It provides with alternative options to a proposed project ensuring sustainable development practise is taken care of.
2)It clarifies the importance of impacts of any particular project to the experts and novice in this particular field.
3)It ensures that the public is actively participating in the research and analysis , thereby helping the decision making bodies.
4)It involves guiding, monitoring and proper feedback systems to review the work of EIA.